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Spring is here, and that means millions of Americans will soon be seeding, fertilizing and mowing their grass.
America has a lot of lawns. Add them all together, and they’d cover an area roughly the size of Florida, making grass the most common irrigated plant in the country. And all that grass comes with an environmental cost.
To keep weeds at bay, homeowners dumped around 59 million pounds of pesticides onto their residential landscapes in 2012, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Some of those leach into the waterways, potentially exposing children and pets to harmful chemicals.
Grass is thirsty, too. Americans use about 7 billion gallons of water a day, a third of all residential water consumption, to irrigate. Roughly half of that water is wasted because of runoff, evaporation or overwatering. And then there’s the mowing, edging and leaf blowing. According to a study by Quiet Communities, a nonprofit group, that equipment, mostly powered by gas, emitted 26.7 million tons of pollutants into the atmosphere in 2011. Those emissions contribute to climate change.
Despite the time and resources needed to maintain a tidy lawn, they provide no habitat for bees, butterflies or the birds that feed on the insects.
“Lawns are a significant environmental problem,” said David Mizejewski, a naturalist with the National Wildlife Federation. “We put in these lawns, and we basically turned these important habitats into dead zones.”
The good news is: You don’t necessarily have to let your yard go wild, or dig the whole thing up to plant rocks, in order to lower your environmental impact.
You can reduce your lawn by chipping away one weekend and one season a time, dedicating a few of the hours you might normally spend caring for your lawn to planting native grasses, shrubs, trees, flowers and food.
Consider replacing some of that needy grass with a low-maintenance ground cover like clover, creeping thyme, mint or strawberry. You can also plant a tree and surround it with a bed of mulch. If you already have trees on your property, you could put in shade-loving plants — like hostas, ferns, impatiens and primrose — below the canopy.
Before you head to the nursery to buy any new grass, plant, shrub or tree, try to choose something that’s native to your area and not an invasive species. If you’re not sure, punch your ZIP code into the Native Plant Finder, which is managed by the National Wildlife Federation.
Another option for reducing lawn area is to start a flower bed or a kitchen garden. The beauty of these plots is that they can start small and expand a bit each season. Plus, they look great, you can get fresh food and herbs, and they’ll support butterflies, bees and birds.
Whatever you plant, avoid pesticides and aerate the soil instead. Fertilize grass with leaf clippings and accept that you may need to coexist with dandelions.
By Henry Fountain
The well was the only one ever drilled there and had obtained mythic status in the state. Designated KIC-1, it held the best clues as to whether there was oil in the refuge, but the results had been kept secret all these years. When we were in Anchorage reporting the story, it seemed that everyone there was talking about it.
We decided to do some digging. (This comes naturally to Steve, an investigative reporter who can think of few better ways to spend a day than poring over old documents for a story. I’m more comfortable reading scientific papers.)
The trail led fairly quickly to a 1987 court case — in Cleveland, of all places. A friendly court clerk there scanned hundreds of pages of microfilmed documents for us to read.
We also reached out to dozens of people involved in the case. One of the key characters in the story — Sidney Silverman, a lawyer, had confirmed to us that he had deposed an oil company executive who told him about the well. But Mr. Silverman, now 86, couldn’t remember the name of the executive.
Steve found the name buried deep inside one of the court documents, a mundane list of Mr. Silverman’s expenses. (Proof that, as the historian Robert Caro has noted, it’s important to “turn every page” when doing research.)
That was one of many “ah ha!” moments. Another was when we found a general reference to the well results in another court document.
There were plenty of dead ends and plenty of dead people, given that we were investigating events from 32 years ago. When we did reach people who had been involved in the case, often their first reaction was something like, “You want me to remember something from 1987?”
But as our reporting proceeded, we got more confirmation of our initial findings. The story got stronger and stronger. In the end, Steve and I thought we’d really nailed it. And judging by what we’ve heard from Alaska, everybody there is still talking about the well — but also about our story.
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2017年第三期开什么生肖【在】【康】【玉】【成】【的】【计】【划】【中】，【在】【他】【的】【目】【的】【还】【没】【有】【达】【到】【之】【前】，【这】【些】【事】【情】【是】【万】【万】【不】【能】【让】【其】【他】【人】【知】【道】【的】，【更】【不】【要】【说】【被】【公】【布】【于】【众】【了】。 【他】【从】【留】【言】【的】【声】【音】【中】【能】【够】【听】【出】，【此】【人】【年】【纪】【并】【不】【算】【大】，【也】【就】【是】【说】，【她】【的】【修】【为】【不】【会】【太】【高】。 【而】【且】【他】【隐】【约】【觉】【得】【这】【个】【人】【的】【声】【音】【有】【些】【熟】【悉】，【但】【是】【却】【想】【不】【起】【来】【到】【底】【是】【谁】。 【仔】【细】【想】【想】，【他】【知】【道】【的】【女】【修】【中】【只】【有】【有】
【回】【到】【清】【宁】【宫】，【正】【是】【午】【膳】【时】【分】。 【太】【后】【看】【到】【她】，【问】【道】：“【你】【去】【哪】【里】【了】？【方】【才】【宫】【女】【没】【找】【着】【你】。” 【池】【韫】【施】【礼】：“【臣】【女】【出】【去】【散】【步】，【恰】【巧】【遇】【到】【了】【玉】【妃】【娘】【娘】，【就】【到】【灵】【秀】【宫】【坐】【了】【一】【会】【儿】。” 【太】【后】【的】【神】【情】【变】【得】【凝】【重】【起】【来】，【冷】【着】【脸】【道】：“【宫】【里】【地】【方】【大】，【规】【矩】【重】，【以】【后】【你】【还】【是】【少】【出】【去】，【免】【得】【冲】【撞】【了】【谁】。” 【这】【话】【颇】【有】【训】【斥】【的】【意】【味】，
“【我】【的】【圣】【光】【啊】。”——【某】【圣】【骑】【士】【领】【袖】 【嗒】，【嗒】。 【持】【续】【不】【断】【的】【滴】【水】【声】【让】【席】【德】【利】【用】【昏】【迷】【中】【清】【醒】【了】【过】【来】，【喉】【咙】【里】【面】【火】【辣】【辣】【的】【感】【觉】【让】【他】【想】【要】【挣】【扎】【着】【呼】【喊】【几】【声】【却】【在】【挡】【住】【口】【鼻】【的】【粗】【布】【遮】【挡】【下】【变】【成】【了】【无】【意】【义】【的】【呜】【咽】。 【布】【块】【粗】【粝】【的】【触】【感】【摩】【擦】【着】【席】【德】【利】【的】【皮】【肤】，【一】【股】【股】【腐】【臭】【却】【又】【夹】【杂】【着】【苦】【涩】【的】【气】【息】【不】【可】【阻】【挡】【的】【伴】【随】【呼】【吸】【涌】【入】【他】【的】【鼻】
【距】【离】【鹤】【拓】【百】【里】【之】【外】，【那】【十】【辆】【马】【车】【亦】【如】【往】【常】，【满】【载】【着】“【货】【物】”【向】【这】【边】【驶】【来】。【他】【们】【如】【何】【也】【不】【会】【想】【到】，【这】【笔】【固】【若】【金】【汤】【的】【交】【易】，【已】【经】【被】【人】【拦】【腰】【斩】【断】。 【一】【批】【一】【批】【的】【官】【兵】【赶】【赴】【而】【来】，【他】【们】【尖】【锐】【的】【长】【枪】【不】【是】【抵】【御】【外】【敌】，【却】【是】【将】【无】【辜】【百】【姓】【挟】【住】，【以】【此】【来】【与】【那】【青】【年】【道】【士】【谈】【话】。 【一】【滴】【滴】【血】【顺】【着】【苏】【辙】【的】【长】【剑】【躺】【下】，【他】【身】【后】【死】【去】【的】【护】【卫】【官】【兵】
【却】【说】【这】【第】【三】【路】【人】【马】，【便】【是】【相】【思】【涯】。【钟】【若】【寻】【不】【意】【外】【地】【在】【他】【们】【的】【队】【伍】【里】【看】【到】【了】【古】【蔚】【的】【身】【影】，【其】【位】【置】，【赫】【然】【是】【队】【伍】【的】【最】【前】【方】。 【令】【她】【惊】【讶】【的】【是】，【方】【才】【那】【些】【人】【所】【说】【的】“【古】【家】【太】【上】【长】【老】”【并】【未】【出】【现】，【而】【古】【蔚】【的】【修】【为】，【显】【然】【已】【经】【是】【地】【灵】【王】【级】【别】。 【虽】【说】【这】【地】【灵】【王】【的】【水】【分】【十】【足】，【一】【看】【便】【知】【是】【近】【期】【催】【生】【出】【来】【的】，【但】【其】【体】【内】【的】【能】【量】【还】【可】【以】2017年第三期开什么生肖【红】【莲】【武】【神】，【也】【就】【是】【天】**【教】【主】【谭】【不】【败】，【又】【或】【者】……【应】【该】【叫】【他】【铁】【傲】【天】。 【此】【刻】【的】【铁】【傲】【天】【正】【大】【发】【雷】【霆】，【目】【光】【阴】【冷】【的】【看】【向】【麾】【下】【一】【众】【强】【者】【道】：“【半】【年】【了】，【半】【年】【的】【时】【间】，【你】【们】【居】【然】【还】【没】【查】【到】【杀】【害】【我】【儿】【的】【凶】【手】，【饭】【桶】，【通】【通】【的】【都】【是】【饭】【桶】。 【一】【个】【个】【如】【此】【无】【能】，【养】【你】【们】【何】【用】？” 【顿】【了】【一】【顿】，【又】【冷】【哼】【着】【喊】【道】：“【金】、【木】、【水】、【火】、
【为】【什】【么】【那】【孩】【子】【不】【是】【我】【的】【孩】【子】。 【站】【起】【来】，【邵】【君】【莫】【没】【了】【在】【这】【里】【继】【续】【坐】【下】【去】【的】【兴】【致】，“【好】【了】，【我】【还】【有】【事】【情】，【你】【们】【聊】【吧】。” 【就】【把】【时】【间】【留】【给】【他】【们】【三】【个】【吧】。 【这】【个】【家】，【也】【许】【最】【后】【无】【法】【融】【入】【的】【是】【自】【己】【吧】。 【邵】【君】【莫】【离】【开】【之】【后】，【白】【薇】【看】【了】【一】【眼】【楼】【上】，【确】【定】【他】【真】【的】【不】【在】，【才】【松】【了】【一】【口】【气】。 【白】【薇】【看】【着】【盛】**【道】：“**，【你】【别】
【连】【绯】【城】【还】【是】【觉】【得】【那】【个】【空】【姐】【不】【对】【劲】，【在】【她】【走】【了】【很】【远】【之】【后】【还】【在】【盯】【着】【那】【扇】【舱】【门】【垂】【着】【眼】【眸】【沉】【思】。 【可】【是】【左】【思】【右】【想】，【这】【空】【姐】【的】【行】【为】【举】【止】【除】【了】【动】【机】【有】【点】【牵】【强】【之】【外】，【没】【有】【半】【点】【反】【常】。【连】【绯】【城】【烦】【躁】【的】【呼】【了】【口】【气】，【觉】【得】【最】【近】【心】【思】【太】【敏】【感】，【可】【能】【是】【自】【己】【想】【的】【太】【多】【了】，【也】【就】【收】【了】【思】【绪】，【没】【再】【想】【这】【件】【事】【情】。 【但】【令】【她】【没】【想】【到】【的】【事】，【二】【十】【分】【钟】【之】【后】